The Importance of Precision Medicine In Bowel Cancer
In cancer treatment precision medicine plays an important role as it focuses on using a biomarker and other tests for diagnosing the stage of cancer and developing an appropriate treatment plan for the patient (Khatami, Mohajeri-Tehrani and Tavangar, 2019). This method also eliminates the chances of getting treatments that would not be beneficial for the patient. Precision medicine which is also known as personalized medicine enables the healthcare professional to detect the risks associated with cancer and offer treatment to the patient that would be best suited for the patient (Bregenzer et al. 2019). Therefore in recent times, precision medicine has become most helpful in diagnosing cancer and other diseases related to this for a successful outcome of the treatment provided to the patient.
Therefore, the article aims to highlight the importance of precision medicine in the treatment of bowel cancer through the method of critical review. It also attempts to highlight the future directions in the field of precision medicine.
A critical review
According to Ho et al. (2020), in the field of medicine, individualised treatment constructs the core. Therefore, accurately diagnosing, monitoring and treating physical health disorders has led to the advancement in biomarker discovery and the development of technology has enabled personalizing treatment, especially in cases of cancer that have also been underpinned by Sun et al. (2019). The advancement in the technology has focused done improving the therapeutic interventions regarding the selection of drugs and the selection of appropriate dosage for treating a particular type of cancer which eventually focuses on the objective of individualised care of the patient.
Similarly, Molinari et al. (2018), stated that precision medicine or personalised medicine contributes to a significant extent in treating the condition of colorectal cancer. The medical condition of colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease that is associated with various epigenetic and genetic factors which makes it resistant to drugs and increases the difficulties in the process of treatment. Therefore precision medicine or personalized medicine has been introduced for advancing the treatment of colorectal cancer as it enables the healthcare professionals to classify the patient into different groups according to their epigenetic factors and genetic factors and also according to their susceptibility to a specific treatment such as chemotherapy that has been selected for them which has also been agreed upon by Miyamoto et al. (2020).
Garralda et al. (2019), highlighted that precision cancer treatment (PCM), resulting from the accumulated evidence that matches the targeted agents with the tumour molecular deregulations and enables the healthcare professional the development of appropriate treatment for the patient suffering from bowel cancer. The development of the new trial design of precision medicine has made precision medicine, especially in the treatment of colorectal cancer patients a reality (Wang et al. 2019). It has further, facilitated the development of collaboration among the health care professionals for the effective development of drugs to ensure a successful outcome of precision cancer medicine.
On the contrary, Behrouzi, Nafari and Siadat (2019), highlighted that the microbiome plays a crucial role in precision medicine, especially in the treatment of colorectal cancer. Many researchers have focused on investigating this factor and have found it beneficial in the treatment of colorectal cancer. Microbiome, therefore, plays an important role in creating a positive impact on the health outcome of the patient suffering from colorectal cancer through the method of identifying the patterns of biomarker although it has also been discussed by Ternes et al. (2020), that limited information is available regarding the effectiveness of the impact of the biomarker in the process of developing an effective and personalised intervention for the patient suffering from the condition of colorectal cancer.
Gilazieva et al. (2020), stated the three-dimensional tumour models and the application of spheroids and organoids in the treatment of colorectal cancer have shown significant and promising results among the patients suffering from this condition. It is mainly because spheroids and organoids can be easily obtained from the tissue of the patient through the application of the high personalized methods of precision medicine which eventually provides a suitable therapy for the patient suffering from the condition of colorectal cancer (Kondo et al. 2019). Further, it has been identified by Sensi et al. (2019), that the use of spheroids and organoids has contributed to a significant extent to the development of new in vitro platforms that has facilitated drug testing and also enabled the medical world the development of new therapeutic strategies for improving the health condition of the patient suffering from this disease.
In the treatment of colorectal cancer and also in the treatment of other types of cancer among human beings precision medicine has acquired a prominent place as stated by Pang et. (2019). Molecular diagnostics is an important technique for diagnosing the condition of colorectal cancer among the individuals which makes it easier for the healthcare professionals to detect the emergence of cancer in the human body at the early stage eventually increases the survival rate of the individual and also creates a significant impact on the positive health outcome (Stojkovic Lalosevic et al. 2019). In the molecular diagnostics of colorectal cancer as stated by Jung et al. (2020), biomarker molecules play a crucial role in screening the condition of colorectal cancer or CRC with a high rate of accuracy and sensitivity apart from detecting accurately other diseases of an individual associated with the condition of colorectal cancer.
Future directions in the field concerning precision medicine
"Precision medicine" is a very modern concept. In most of the developed countries, scientists actively work on suchy concepts to Provide better Healthcare to the patient. In order to treat cancer, such types of medications can be very useful. In most of the cases, such a concept is based on artificial intelligence and machine learning.
Introduction of the artificial intelligence, development of the cutting-edge Technology and machine learning provide a huge platform to such concepts. According to Ginsburg and Phillips (2018), such a concept can be very much beneficial to treat and diagnose diseases like cancer.
Artificial Intelligence: The Concept of Artificial Intelligence is commonly associated with intelligence and human intelligence. Humans are actively programmed, code some computer programs, that can learn, understand the reason for the problems and act on the problems. Such understanding is developed by making precise algorithms and models (rutgers.edu, 2022).
Machine learning: The concept of machine learning is little different from Artificial Intelligence. In the opinion of Bzdok et al. (2021), in this mode or type of AI technologies, the system is not preprogrammed rather, it learns from the iteratively to make a decision and prediction.
With the help of such types of advanced technologies, doctors can understand the actual p[problems of the patients very much easily and can take necessary steps at earliest.
Deep learning: Deep learning procedure is another mode of advanced learning processes. This type of concept is based on the artificial neural networks modeled. This process is developed by understanding the functionality of the human brain, how the brain processes such a huge amount of data.
In the case of complex diseases such as cancer, "Precision medicine" can play a very important role. To understand the problem, the concept might work in three separate partes. Such parte are discussed below.
Visual appearance: In the case of visual appearances, photographers can be taken to study and identify the actual damaged cells. Usage of the vinegar also can be very much beneficial as it can highlighted the damaged or infected tissue.
Pap smear: in this case, the tissues are collected on a slide and further research work generally done in a laboratory. In most of the cases the sensitivity of the approach is around 71% (Prendergast and Burdick, 2020). Although further research is required in this section to make it more reliable and sustainable.
Automated visual evaluation: By using various types of artificial tools and programs, deep learning can be developed from the past and current data based. In the opinion of Bzdok et al. (2021), digital images of the infected area can be very much useful for the treatments.
From the above discussion it can be concluded that, the future of precision medicine is very much brought. With the help of such concepts, the diseases can be identified more easily and the recovery process might improve. In the case of Bowel cancer, the idea can be revolutionary.
Thus, to conclude, in the diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer and also in detecting other types of cancer in the human body biomarker molecule in the form of precision medicine contributes to a significant extent in developing a personalized treatment plan for the patient suffering from the condition of colorectal cancer. Moreover, the combination of the microbiome with biomarkers has advanced the discovery of precision medicine or personalized medicine in the treatment of colorectal cancer. Further, the primary purpose of colorectal cancer as it has been identified from a critical overview of the literature review specifies that precision medicine enables a healthcare professional to accurately detect the type and stage of cancer in human beings to develop a personalized care plan for them that would eventually facilitate a positive outcome of the treatment provided to the patients with colorectal or bowel cancer.